Antarctic Treaty was signed by twelve nations in 1959. The original twelve countries are: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia (as Soviet Union), South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States. Today 50 countries recognize the treaty. The continent will be kept as a scientific preserve, and no nation can colonize it. Children can view great pictures of Antarctic animals at: Antarctic Animals.
War of 1812 ended in 1814 when a peace treaty, the Treaty of Ghent, was signed in Ghent, Belgium. Representatives from the United States and Great Britain started negotiations in August and completed the details December 24th. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 16, 1815. Children can view the detailed transcript of the treaty and other documents at: Treaty of Ghent.
North American Treaty was signed in 1949. Twelve nations formed the original North American Treaty Organization: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. Greece and Turkey became members in 1951, and West Germany joined in 1954. Spain became the last member in 1982. The main purpose of NATO is protection; an attack against one member is an attack against all members. Idea: Children could locate these countries on a world map and decide whether all countries benefit equally from this treaty.
Burundi and the Republic of Rwanda both celebrate their Independence Days. Belgium gave up control of both countries in 1962.
Burundi, according to the CIA World Factbook, is about the size of Maryland. This landlocked country in central Africa is covered by mountains with an eastern plateau. It borders Lake Tanganyika. The tropical climate means that coffee and tea can be exported. Almost 11 million people live in Burundi, and Bujumbura is the capital.
Republic of Rwanda is also about the size if Maryland and is also landlocked. The climate is temperate, and geography is mostly grassy uplands. Subsistence agriculture and mining are the major occupations for the 12 million inhabitants. Kigali is the capital.
Belgium celebrates National Day. King Leopold ascended to the throne in 1821. Brussels is the capital of this country, located in northwestern Europe. Belgium is about the size of the state of Maryland. Natural resources include silica sand and construction materials. Over ten million people live in Belgium, and Dutch, French, and German are official languages.