First crossword puzzle was created in 1913 by Arthur Wynne and published in the New York World newspaper. He called his puzzle Word-cross, but the name soon changed to Crossword. The puzzle was an immediate success, and he began publishing weekly puzzles. Soon readers were sending in their own crossword puzzles. Children can see the first crossword puzzle and read more about it at: First Crossword Puzzle. They can get involved with all kinds of puzzles at: Puzzles.
Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted in 1913. Congress could implement an income tax. Prior to the Sixteenth Amendment, people paid indirect taxes through buying items that were taxed.
Harriet Tubman died in Auburn, New York, in 1913. Her exact date of birth is unknown. She was born around 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland. A slave, she escaped to Philadelphia in 1849. She then became the most famous conductor for the Underground Railroad, probably saving about 900 people. During the Civil War, she acted as a spy and a scout. After the war, she cared for orphans and the aged. Children may want to read Before She Was Harriet, written by Lesa Cline-Ransome and illustrated by James E Ransome. He received a 2018 Coretta Scott King Illustrator Honor Award for the book. Children could also learn more about her life at: Harriet Tubman.
Woodrow Wilson spoke before a formal presidential press conference in 1913. The press conference was the first of its kind. Children can see some very interesting data regarding presidents and the number of press conferences held at: Presidential Press Conference.
Death Valley, California, noted a record-breaking temperature of 134 degrees Fahrenheit in 1913. The record still holds. Children can learn more at: http://www.nps.gov/deva/index.htm.