Luna 2, a Soviet spacecraft, was launched in 1959. On September 14, 1959, it became the first spacecraft to land on the moon. It discovered that the moon had no magnetic field.
Sputnik 9, a Soviet spacecraft, ventured into space in 1961. Its passengers included a mannequin, a dog named Chernushka (Blackie), some mice, and a guinea pig. It made a single orbit before returning to earth. The mannequin was ejected prior to the landing to test an ejection seat.