Anesthesia was used for the first time in surgery in 1842. Dr. Crawford Long operated on a tumor on the neck of James Venable. The patient had been given ether. Long did not report the results of the surgery until 1849.
Egg Incubator was patented in 1843 by Napoleon E. Guerin of New York, New York. He received patent 3,019. Incubators circulate warm air around fertilized eggs until the chicks are ready to hatch. Children can learn more at: Egg Incubator.
Pencil with eraser was patented in 1858 by Hymen Lipman of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He received patent number 19,783. Children can see the patent at: pencil with easer patent. About two billion pencils are produced each year. The pencil “lead” is really a form of graphite.
Alaska was bought by the United States from Russia in 1867. The purchase was often originally called Seward’s Folly. William Seward, secretary of state, bought Alaska for $1,200,000. That averaged out to about two cents an acre. The 1898 Alaska gold rush was one of the first indicators that the United States had made a good bargain. Children could learn more at: Alaska.
Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted in 1870. A person’s right to vote could not be denied on the basis of “race, color, or previous servitude.”
Vincent van Gogh (born Groot Zundert, Holland, 1853; died Auvers-sur-Oise, France, July 29, 1890) was an artist. He never received formal training. He often applied the paint with a palette knife. Children can visit the Metropolitan Museum website at: Vincent van Gogh. Idea: Children could compare and contrast the works of Goya and van Gogh.
Francisco Jose de Goya (born Aragon, Spain, 1746; died Bordeaux, France, April 16, 1828) was a Spanish artist. He produced more than 1,800 artworks. Children can visit the Metropolitan Museum website at: Francisco Jose de Goya.
Anna Sewell (born Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England, Old 1820; died Catton, Norfolk, England, April 25, 1878) wrote Black Beauty. Children can read Black Beauty at: Project Gutenberg. They could also learn more at: Anna Sewell.