William the Conqueror arrived in England in 1066. The Duke of Normandy was expanding his realm.
Battle of Yorktown commenced in 1781. George Washington and 17,000 American and French troops laid siege against General Cornwallis and 9,000 British soldiers in Yorktown at the mouth of the Chesapeake. French ships cut off his retreat into the bay. Cornwallis surrendered three weeks later on October 17, 1781. Yorktown was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War.
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, somewhat by accident, in 1928. He had been researching effective germ killers when he noticed that a discarded petri dish containing penicillin was killing staph bacteria. He conducted further research and discovered the amazing strength of penicillin. However, he could not figure out how to mass produce penicillin. Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, however, solved that problem. All three shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945. They have saved millions of lives.
Padre Island National Seashore was established in 1962. Located along the Gulf of Mexico, the national seashore is the longest unprotected barrier island in the world. Five species of sea turtles (Kemp’s ridleys, loggerheads, leatherbacks, hawksbills, and greens) nest on the island. More than 380 species of birds live on the island or migrate through the area. Children can learn more at: Padre Island.
Kate Douglas Wiggin (born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1856; died Harrow, England, August 24, 1923) established kindergartens in California. However, she is most known for being a children’s author. One of her most famous works is Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. Children can read many of her books at: Project Gutenberg. They can also learn more at: Kate Douglas Wiggin.
Carol Lynch Williams (born Orlando, Florida, 1959) writes books for young adults. Her books include The Haven and Pretty Like Us. Young adults can visit her website at: Carol Lynch Williams.