United States capital was established temporarily in New York in 1788 by the Constitutional Convention. The city remained the capital until August 12, 1790. The capital moved back to Philadelphia before it finally moved to Washington, DC.
Star-Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key during an attack on Fort McHenry in 1814. The melody was composed by John Stafford Smith, a British composer, for another song. The song became the national anthem by Presidential decree in 1916 and adopted by Congress in 1931.
Velcro was patented by George de Mestral in 1955. He received patent number 2717437. Children could make a list of things that use Velcro. For example, some shoes use Velcro.
International Chocolate Day is today! Perhaps this day was chosen because it is also Milton Hershey’s birthday. Anyway – S’Mores? Brownies? Chocolate ice cream? Children can learn how chocolate is made at: Chocolate.
Roald Dahl (born Llandaff, South Wales, Great Britain, 1916; died Oxford, England, November 23, 1990) wrote books for both children and adults. He wrote among other works James and the Giant Peach and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Children can visit a website devoted to him at: Roald Dahl.
Milton S. Hershey (born Derry Township, Pennsylvania, 1857; died Hershey, Pennsylvania, October 13, 1945) developed the Hershey Bar. His career began in Chicago and New York where he made and sold caramels. In 1905 he concocted the idea of the Hershey Bar and returned to Pennsylvania. There he built his chocolate factory. Children could read Chocolate by Hershey: A Story about Milton S. Hershey by Betty Burford.
Carol Kendall (born Bucyrus, Ohio, 1917; died Lawrence, Kansas, July 28, 2012) was a children’s author. One of her most famous books is The Gammage Cup, a 1960 Newbery Honor Book. She also wrote The Whisper of Glocken. Children can learn more at: Carol Kendall.
Else Holmelund Minarik (born Denmark, 1920; died Sunset Beach, North Carolina, July 12, 2012) wrote the Little Bear series (illustrated by Maurice Sendak) and other books. Children can learn more at: Else Holmelund Minarik.
Walter Reed (born Gloucester County, Virginia, 1851; died Washington, DC, November 22, 1902) was an army physician. He conducted important research regarding yellow fever.
Arnold Schoenberg (born Vienna, Austria, 1874; died Brentwood, California, July 13, 1951) was a composer. He wrote atonal music. Eventually he developed a twelve tone system. Idea: Students could listen to some recordings of his music. Can they tell the difference between his music and music of other composers?
Mildred D. Taylor (born Jackson, Mississippi, 1943) is a children’s author. She wrote among other works Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, which received the 1977 Newbery Medal. She also received numerous Coretta Scott King Awards: in 1982 for Let the Circle Be Unbroken, in 1988 for The Friendship, and in 2002 for The Land. She also earned Jane Addams Book Awards: in 1976 for Song of the Trees, in 1977 for Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, in 1982 for Let the Circle Be Unbroken, and in 1996 for The Well: David’s Story. In 2002 her book The Land received the Scott O’Dell Award for Historical Fiction.