Mozambique celebrates Independence Day. It became independent from Portugal in 1975. Located on the east coast of Africa, it is almost double the size of California. Natural resources include titanium, coal, and natural gas. About 25 million people live there. Maputo is the capital.
Croatia and Slovenia celebrate Independence Day. They both broke away from Yugoslavia in 1991.
Croatia is about the size of West Virginia. Croatia’s seacoast has a Mediterranean climate, and the interior has more of a continental climate. About four million people live in Croatia, and natural resources include oil and bauxite. Zagreb is the capital.
Slovenia, according to the CIA World Factbook, is about the size of New Jersey. Slovenia, north of Croatia, also has a Mediterranean climate along its coast. Coal, lead, and zinc are natural resources. Almost two million Slovenians live in this small country. Ljubljana is the capital.
Virginia became the tenth state of the United States by ratifying the Constitution in 1788. It was named after Queen Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen. Its nicknames include Old Dominion, Mother of Presidents, and Mother of States. The capital is Richmond. Virginia ranks thirty-sixth in area and twelfth in population. Jamestown was settled in 1607, and important landmarks include Arlington National Cemetery and Appomattox Courthouse National Park. Children could visit an Internet site at: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/es/va/es_va_subj.html. Idea: Students could find a list of birthplaces of Presidents. Is Virginia truly the Mother of Presidents?
Custer’s Last Stand took place in 1876 at Little Bighorn. Custer and his men attacked a camp of Sioux Indians in Montana Territory. Custer had misjudged the number of Indian fighters, and all 200 soldiers were killed within two hours. Children can learn more at: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/recon/jb_recon_custer_1.html. The Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument was established on November 26, 1991. Children can visit the monument site at: http://www.nps.gov/libi.
Korean War began in 1950. Soldiers from northern Korea attacked southern troops. The United States entered the conflict on June 30. The war ended July 27, 1953. Older children could learn more at: http://americanhistory.si.edu/subs/history/timeline/origins/war_in_korea.html.
Eric Carle (born Syracuse, New York, 1929) has written and illustrated at least 70 books for children. He wrote among other works The Very Quiet Cricket, published in 1990. He received the 2003 Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for his body of work. Children can visit his website, especially the “download” section at: http://www.eric-carle.com/home.html.
Elizabeth Orton Jones (born Highland Park, Illinois, 1910; died Peterborough, New Hampshire, May 10, 2005) wrote and illustrated books for children. She received a Caldecott Honor Award in 1944 for Small Rain: Verses from the Bible. She earned the 1945 Caldecott Medal for Prayer for a Child, written by Rachel Field. Children can learn more at: http://www.bookologymagazine.com/resources/authors-emeritus/jones-elizabeth-orton/
Tololwa M. Mollel (born Tarusha, Tanzania, 1952) has written at least sixteen books for children. He now lives in Edmonton, Canada. My Rows and Piles of Coins received a 2000 Coretta Scott King Honor Award for Illustration for E. B. Lewis. Children can learn more at: http://tololwamollel.com/.
George Orwell (born Eric Arthur Blair in Motihari, Bengal, 1903; died London, England, January 21, 1950) was a writer. Two of his most famous works are 1984 and Animal Farm.
Sonia Sotomayor (born New York, New York, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. She assumed the office on August 8, 2009. She is the first Hispanic Justice and the third female Justice. Children can learn more at: http://www.timeforkids.com/news/justice-no-other/13361.
Lynd Kendall Ward (born Chicago, Illinois, 1905; died Reston, Virginia, June 28, 1985) created and illustrated wordless books. He used wood cuts for his illustrations. He received a Caldecott Honor Award in 1950 for America’s Ethan Allen, and he earned the 1953 Caldecott Medal for The Biggest Bear. His unusual illustrations sparked interest in graphic novels. In 2011 the Lynd Ward Graphic Novel Prize was established. Children can learn more at: http://www.bookologymagazine.com/resources/authors-emeritus/ward-lynd/