San Marino celebrates Founding of the Republic Day. Saint Marinus, a stonemason, founded the country in AD 301. About a third of the size of Washington, DC, San Marino is a country within the country of Italy. Over 32,000 people live there, and the capital is the city of San Marino.
Qatar celebrates Independence Day. It declared its freedom from Great Britain in 1971. About the size of Connecticut, Qatar is now ruled by Sheik Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani. The country obtains most of its income from oil and banking. Over two million people live in Qatar, and Doha is the capital.
Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783. Great Britain and the United States signed the treaty, formally ending the Revolutionary War and recognizing the United States as an independent country. The negotiators for the United States were John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple. Benjamin West’s painting Treaty of Paris (shown here) displays the five American negotiators. The painting was never completed because the British refused to be included. At least one copy of the treaty is housed in the National Archives. Children can read a transcript of the treaty at: Treaty of Paris.
Peggy Whitson returned to earth on September 3, 2017. She set a new record of 665 days in space, including 288 days during her most recent stint on the International Space Station. She is now the American and any woman to spend the most time in space. She served on three missions on the space station. She set other space records as well. She is the oldest female astronaut at age 57, and she is the first woman to have commanded the International Space Station twice. The biochemist landed in a Soyuz capsule in Kazakhstan.
Aliki Brandenberg (born Wildwood Crest, New Jersey, 1929) is a picture book author and illustrator. She wrote among other works How a Book Is Made.
Prudence Crandall (born Hopkinton, Rhode Island, 1803; died January 28, 1890) was a teacher. Her school was boycotted when the families found out she had included an African-American girl. She then created a school for “young ladies and misses of colour.” The town of Canterbury eventually drove her out, and she moved west. Older children can read a brief biography at: Prudence Crandall.
Today is Labor Day, a holiday and the unofficial end to summer. The holiday was probably first observed in 1882 in New York City by the Carpenters and Joiners Union. The holiday grew in popularity, and over half the states were celebrating Labor Day by 1893. President Grover Cleveland made it a legal holiday in 1894. Children can learn more at: Labor Day.
Romulus Augustulus, leader of the Roman Empire, was deposed in AD 476. Many experts believe this event marks the fall of the Roman Empire. Idea: Children could find maps of the Roman Empire. How far did its power reach?
First self-service restaurant opened in 1885. The Exchange Buffet in Manhattan served food only to men; and because there were no tables, men ate standing. By 1921 around 34 Exchange Buffets had opened.
Mark Spitz in 1972 became the first person to win seven gold medals in one Olympic competition. He received gold medals in: 100 meter freestyle, 200 meter freestyle, 4 X 100 meter freestyle relay, 4 X 200 meter freestyle relay, 100 meter butterfly, 200 meter butterfly, and 4 X 100 meter medley relay. His record lasted until Michael Phelps won eight gold medals in the 2008 Olympics.